Leaky gut syndrome has no single cause, but some of the most common contributors are chronic stress, dysbiosis, environmental contaminants, gastrointestinal disease, immune overload, overuse of alcoholic beverages, poor food choices, presence of pathogenic bacteria, parasites and yeasts, and prolonged use of NSAIDs. Let's discuss some of these one at a time.
Thus, as we learn more about autoimmune diseases and types of arthritis, we have a tremendous opportunity to make a huge difference. Some scientists have shown that periodontal bacteria may play a significant role as a stimulus for rheumatoid arthritis. Similarly, intestinal bacteria play a significant role as a cause of various types of spondyloarthritis, including ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis.
This is a new world and a new age. We are coming to grips with who we are as organisms, both the organism that is visible on the outside and the organism that is inside us, with both working together in health and in disease.
And now a new study on humans by researchers in the UK suggests a positive link between our gut microbes and our mental health. By feeding volunteers packages of gut-friendly prebiotics - non-digestible carbohydrates that act as food for ‘good bacteria’ called probiotics - the team was able to change the way they process emotional information, making it easier for them to ward off anxious or depressed feelings.
U.S. researchers have found a link between intestinal bacteria and the effectiveness of the flu vaccine. And the finding could have important implications for how vaccines are given.
I was asked if this paper confirms what I’ve been saying all along: that a leaky gut contributes to autoimmune disease. But, this research shows something altogether more intriguing: that once the immune system develops the ability to attack tissues of the body, the gut is the first victim. The situation is a little bit different than the targeted attack of the immune system on specific tissues (like the myelin sheaths in the case of multiple sclerosis) that happens in autoimmune disease. Instead, the immune system is getting ramped up and, likely because so much of the body’s immune system is housed in the gut, the gut is the first tissue to be harmed by a dysfunctional immune system. Rather than a leaky gut causing the dysfunctional immune system that leads to autoimmune disease, this research shows that it might just be the other way around.
Conclusions: Across each population with different kinds of ascertainment, there was a consistent and statistically significant increased prevalance of IBD in patients with ASD than their respective controls and nationally reported rates for pediatric IBD.
Exposure of germ-free adult mice to a pathogen-free gut microbiota decreased BBB permeability and up-regulated the expression of tight junction proteins. Our results suggest that gut microbiota–BBB communication is initiated during gestation and propagated throughout life.
Collectively, these data reinforce the link between gut dysbiosis and neurologic dysfunction and suggest that dietary and/or pharmacologic manipulation of gut microbiota could attenuate the neurologic complications of obesity.
Symptoms of GI dysfunction were prevalent: 49% of the children reported one or more chronic GI complaints, 22% exhibited diarrhea, 26% suffered from constipation. Furthermore 13% of the parents reported their children to suffer from bloating and/or being gassy and while 10% of the parents reported vomiting or gastroesophageal reflux problems. Similar rates of GI symptoms were reported among pre-school and school-aged children. Inflammation of the gut was found in 6 of the 12 subjects who underwent endoscopic and colonoscopic evaluations, however clinical symptoms did not predict the results of the evaluation. GI dysfunction was significantly associated with sleep disorders and food intolerance, but not with irritability or aggressiveness. In summary, GI dysfunction was prevalent in this cohort of children with ASD, observations consistent with the reports of parents and other clinicians. We conclude that the GI dysfunction in ASD requires proper evaluation and treatment.
The severity of autistic symptoms correlated with concentrations of CM-7 in the urine. Because CMs interact with opioid and serotonin receptors, the known modulators of synaptogenesis, we suggest that chronic exposure to elevated levels of bovine CMs may impair early child development, setting the stage for autistic disorders.
New studies show that bacteria, including commensal, probiotic, and pathogenic bacteria, in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract can activate neural pathways and central nervous system (CNS) signaling systems.
Taken together, these findings support a gut-microbiome-brain connection in a mouse model of ASD and identify a potential probiotic therapy for GI and particular behavioral symptoms in human neurodevelopmental disorders.
During the resting brain scan, the women consuming probiotics showed greater connectivity between a key brainstem region known as the periaqueductal grey and cognition-associated areas of the prefrontal cortex. The women who ate no product at all, on the other hand, showed greater connectivity of the periaqueductal grey to emotion- and sensation-related regions, while the group consuming the non-probiotic dairy product showed results in between.
The gut microbiome has played a crucial role in the bidirectional gut-brain axis that integrates the gut and central nervous system (CNS) activities, and thus the concept of microbiome-gut-brain axis is emerging. Studies are revealing how diverse forms of neuro-immune and neuro-psychiatric disorders are correlated with or modulated by variations of microbiome, microbiota-derived products and exogenous antibiotics and probiotics. The microbiome poises the peripheral immune homeostasis and predisposes host susceptibility to CNS autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Neural, endocrine and metabolic mechanisms are also critical mediators of the microbiome-CNS signaling, which are more involved in neuro-psychiatric disorders such as autism, depression, anxiety, stress.
Traditional research has studied autism as a genetic disorder and a disorder of the brain, but our work shows that gut bacteria may contribute to ASD-like symptoms in ways that were previously unappreciated," says Professor of Biology Sarkis K. Mazmanian. "Gut physiology appears to have effects on what are currently presumed to be brain functions
Taken as a whole, the picture that emerges is one in which GI symptomatic children with ASD in whom cellular infiltrate is present in the ileum and colon have a distinct molecular signature that is consistent with the larger disease categories of gastrointestinal disease, and more specifically, overlaps with Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and autoimmunity.
But new research indicates that infants' immune response is actively being held down by immunosuppressive cells... This may be an evolutionary adaptation to give the infant the best biome possible.
Frequent GI problems affect young children with ASD and DD more commonly than those with TD. Maladaptive behaviors correlate with GI problems, suggesting these comorbidities require attention.
There is some evidence that dietary factors may play a role as secondary triggers of autism.3,4 There is also a fair amount of empirical evidence of a diet-autism connection
Co-occurring gastrointestinal dysfunction (GID) characterizes a subset of children with ASD... Elevation in peripheral oxidative stress is consistent with, and may contribute to, the more severe functional impairments in the ASD-GID group
A subset of children with autism displays increased immune reactivity to gluten, the mechanism of which appears to be distinct from that in celiac disease. The increased anti-gliadin antibody response and its association with GI symptoms points to a potential mechanism involving immunologic and/or intestinal permeability abnormalities in affected children
Four-week intake of FMPP (fermented mild product with probiotic) by healthy women affected activity of brain regions that control central processing of emotion and sensation
We report the history of a child with autism and epilepsy who, after limited response to other interventions following her regression into autism, was placed on a gluten-free, casein-free diet, after which she showed marked improvement in autistic and medical symptoms
Clinical experience, parent concern, and developing lines of research all make clear the importance of addressing GI problems and symptoms among children and adolescents with ASD... This article reviews key areas of epidemiology, underlying pathology, nutrition, and treatment and outcome
they clearly highlight that the absence of critical bacteria during early life affects behaviors relevant to autism and thus further investigations into how the microbiota affects the wiring of the brain are required
Four-week intake of an FMPP by healthy women affected activity of brain regions that control central processing of emotion and sensation
Regulation of the microbiome-gut brain axis is essential for maintaining homeostasis, including that of the CNS. However, there is paucity of data pertaining to the influence of microbiome on the serotonergic system... In addition, reduced anxiety in GF animals is also normalised following restoration of the intestinal microbiota. These results demonstrate that CNS neurotransmission can be profoundly disturbed by the absence of a normal gut microbiota and that this aberrant neurochemical, but not behavioural, profile is resistant to restoration of a normal gut flora in later life
Increased intestinal permeability should be largely improved by dietary addition of compounds, such as glutamine or curcumin, which both have the mechanistic potential to inhibit the inflammation and oxidative stress linked to tight junction opening. This brief review aims to increase physician awareness of this common, albeit largely unrecognized, pathology, which may be easily prevented or improved by means of simple nutritional changes.
Conclusions: Patients with autism or related disorders exhibiting chronic gastrointestinal symptoms demonstrate ileal or colonic inflammation upon light microscopic examination of biopsy tissue. Further work is needed to determine whether resolution of histopathology with appropriate therapy is accompanied by GI symptomatic and cognitive/behavioral improvement.
The three detecting systems in the intestine are more extensive than those of any other organ: the enteric nervous system contains on the order of 108 neurons, the gastroenteropancreatic endocrine system uses more than 20 identified hormones, and the gut immune system has 70– 80% of the body's immune cells.