Histopathology confirmed encephalitis and immunohistochemistry was positive for RV on brain tissue. RV was also detected by qPCR and virus isolation in cerebrospinal fluid, brain and other clinical samples. The sequence obtained from the isolated virus was identical to that of the RA 27/3 vaccine strain
Children of mothers vaccinated against measles and, possibly, rubella have lower concentrations of maternal antibodies and lose protection by maternal antibodies at an earlier age than children of mothers in communities that oppose vaccination. This increases the risk of disease transmission in highly vaccinated populations
Two dose recipients whose first dose was given at 12-13 months rather than ≥ 15 months of age were at substantially higher risk of measles infection as adolescents. The optimal two-dose schedule in support of the measles elimination goal warrants further evaluation
The absence of spread cases from the 2 physicians in this report suggests that there may be limited replication of virus in vaccinated persons with mild or short-lived symptoms
The presence of MBP autoantibodies in both the blood and CSF suggests that the autoimmune reaction is also localized in the brains of autistic children. Furthermore, the presence of MMR antibodies in 3 of 10 CSF specimens (TABLE 4) is a highly positive sign of MMR-acquired measles infection in the brain of these autistic children. Unlike the highly select anti-MBP and anti-MMR immune markers, the nonspecific anti-NAFP marker was not found in CSF specimens. Thus, there is a positive correlation between MMR antibodies and MBP autoantibodies in autistic children, suggesting an etiologic link of MMR-derived measles virus to autoimmunity in autism.22-24
Collectively, these findings suggested an etiologic link between the MMR vaccine and autoimmunity in autism. As far as we know, this is the first study of its kind to examine associations between a viral factor (virus serology) and an autoimmune factor (brain autoantibodies) in a medical condition (autism/ASD) in which autoimmunity appears to be the core of the problem. Evidently, our study might also represent a novel mechanism by which the so-called autistic regression post-MMR vaccination might be explained in at least some children with ASD.22
This preliminary study found that acetaminophen use after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination was associated with autistic disorder
Thus autistic children have a hyperimmune response to measles virus, which in the absence of a wild type of measles infection might be a sign of an abnormal immune reaction to the vaccine strain or virus reactivation
Fever occurring subsequent to measles vaccination is related to the replication of the live attenuated vaccine virus. In the case presented here, the vaccine virus was isolated in the throat, showing that subcutaneous injection of an attenuated measles strain can result in respiratory excretion of this virus.
Stemming from this evidence, we suggest that an inappropriate antibody response to MMR, specifically the measles component there of, might be related to the pathogenesis of autism
Infants whose mothers were born after 1963 are more susceptible to measles than are infants of older mothers
The presence of measles virus in the brain tissue was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.
However, despite short-term success in eliminating the disease, long-range projections demonstrate that the proportion of susceptibles in the year 2050 may be greater than in the prevaccine era