An Example Of The Two In Comparison
Correlation: Observation or data gathering between two or more variables in a population (Burns, B., Grove, S., pg. 264). Research process that analyzes correlation includes; descriptive correlation design, predictive correlational design (Burns, B., Grove, S., pg. 266). For example, epidemiological studies are used to refute vaccine autism causation, even though the IOM states these studies are; “limited in their ability to detect small susceptible subpopulations that could be more genetically vulnerable to environmental exposures” (IOM, pg. 127).
Causality Research Designs
Randomized Controlled Experimental Design. Similar in all respects to the quasi-experimental design except the control group(s) can very, as well as the treatments, which the experiment is based. For example, some individuals in the control group might receive a placebo (active or not active), and other individuals might not receive any form of benign treatment. The independent variables (treatments) might include “different frequency, intensity, or duration of nursing care measures” (Burns, B., Grove, S., pg. 276). Randomized clinical trials are considered controlled experimental designs, which would look at causality (Burns, B., Grove, S., pg. 280).
Correlational Research Designs
Predictive correlational design. This design uses a “theory-based mathematical hypothesis” utilizing dependent and independent variables describing how elements correlate (Burns, B., Grove, S., pg. 266).
Pro-Vaccine Research Is Epidemiological (Observational)
Epidemiology studies are correlational, and are considered valid when disproving the vaccine autism link.
Parent Accounts Are Observational
Parental accounts are correlational, and are not considered valid when proving the vaccine autism link.
Which can be proved through the research process, and to what degree?
Scientific study in today’s medical culture is prone to industry influence and bias, so it is up to the consumer to closely research all aspects of the trial work or correlation/causation research. It is unclear how practical that is when thinking of the whole population. Buyer beware….
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George Mason University. (n.d.). What is the difference between causation and correlation? STATS. Retrieved from http://www.stats.org/faq_vs.htm
IOM. (2014). Immunization safety review: Vaccines and autism. The National Academies Press. Retrieved from http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10997&utm_source=WID%209161484220130402170839&utm_medium=Widgetv3&utm_content=10997&utm_campaign=Widget&utm_term=homeview
Stamatakis et al. (2013). Undue industry influences that distort healthcare research, strategy, expenditure and practice: a review. Eur J Clin Invest. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23521369
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Msnbc. (2004). Report: Vioxx linked to thousands of deaths. NBCNEWS. Retrieved from http://www.nbcnews.com/id/6192603/ns/health-arthritis/t/report-vioxx-linked-thousands-deaths/#.UzGaW1723-8
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Winstein, K., Armstrong, D. (2009). Top pain scientist fabricated data in studies, hospital says. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB123672510903888207